Jai Srimannarayana !
ramae rajmi[> sda ivjyte ram< rmez< Éje
rame[aiÉhta inzacrcmU> ramay tSmE nm>,
ramat! naiSt pray[< prtr< ramSy dasaeSMyh<
rame icÄly> sda Évatu me Éae ram mamuÏr. 1 .
rämo räjamaëiù sadä vijayate rämaà rameçaà bhaje
rämeëäbhihatä niçäcaracamüù rämäya tasmai namaù|
rämät nästi paräyaëaà parataraà rämasya däsosmyahaà
räme cittalayaù sadä bhavätu me bho räma mämuddhara || 1 ||
k«:[ae r]tu nae jgÇy gué> k«:[< nmSyaMyh<
k«:[enamrzÇvae ivinhta k«:[ay tSmE nm>,
k«:[adev smuiTwtm! jgiddm! k«:[Sy dasaeSMyh<
k«:[e itóit svRmetdiolm! he k«:[ r]Sv mam!.2 .
kåñëo rakñatu no jagatraya guruù kåñëaà namasyämyahaà
kåñëenämaraçatravo vinihatä kåñëäya tasmai namaù |
kåñëädeva samutthitam jagadidam kåñëasya däsosmyahaà
kåñëe tiñöhati sarvametadakhilam he kåñëa rakñasva mäm ||2 ||
In Sanskrit "Vibhakti" (case) means difference in formation of words.
Prepositions are used to indicate the relationship of one word with the other in English. Where as in Sanskrit the case terminations are part of the word, which serve the purpose of prepositions .
We have seven cases. They are:
Prathamaa Vibhakti 1 The subject word in an active voice is in prathama vibhakti
.EX. vanarah vriksham arohati (The monkey climbs the tree.)
Nominative case The object word in passive voice is also a prathama vibhakti
EX. vanarena vrikshah aaruhyate( The tree is climbed by a monkey )
Hence this vibhakti is used to denote a subject in an active voice and an object in the passive voice.
EX Raamah raajamanih sadaavijayte.(Victory to Rama , the best of the kings
EX Krishnah rakshatu nah jagatraya guruh ( May Krishana protect us the Universal Teacher )
Dvitiiyaa vibhakti 2 This is used to indicate the object in an active voice
Accusative case vanarah vrikshyam arohati ( The monkey climbs the tree)
this is an active voice in which Vriksham is an object and is in dvitiya vibhakti
EX Ramam Ramesham bhaje ( I worship Rama ,the Lord of Sita)
EX Krishnam namasyaamyaham ( I salute Krishna )
Tritiiya Vibhakti 3 This is used to indicate an instrument ( with , by )
Instrumental case Ramena abhihataa nishachara chamu (Armies of the night wanderers (demons) were killed by Rama. )
Krishnena abhihataa nishachara chamu (Armies of the night wanderes (demons ) were killed by Kri
Chaturthi Vibhakti 4 This is used to indicate the purpose ( for, to )***** IMPORTANT *****
Dative case EX . Raamaaya tasmai namah ((A salute for that Rama ) All our sahasranamavalis or Ashttottara shata namavalis are in this case.
EX Krishnaaya tasmai namah ( A salute for that Krishna)Every action of us is for Lord only .we offer every thing for Him. is indicated.
Panchami Vibhakti 5 This is used to indicate separation ( from, out of, than )
Ablative case EX Ramaat naasti paraayanam parataram ( there is no better destination than (from) Rama.
EX Krishnaat eva samutthitam jagat idam ( this whole world has come out from Krishna )
Shashthi Vibhakti 6 This is used to denote possession ( of , to , belonging to )
Possessive case EX Ramasya daasah asmi aham ( I am the servant or worshipper of Rama)
EX Krishnasya daasah asmi aham ( I am the servant or worshipper of Krishna )
Saptami Vibhati 7 This is used to denote lacation ( in , at, into ,among )
Locative case EX Raame chittalayah sadaa ( May my mind always be absorbed in Rama )
EX Krishne tishthati sarvam etat akhilam ( Every thing of this universe lies in Krishna )
Sambhodhana Prathama vibhakti (Nominative address or Vocative case ) is not regarded as a separate case by Grammarians
EX Bho ! Raama maam uddhara ( Oh ! Rama save me )
EX Hey! Krishna rakshasva maam ( Oh ! Krishna pretect me )